what is modern-day persia

Examine the history of the Persian Empire from its founding by Cyrus the Great through Alexander the Great.

The official language of Iran is Farsi, but it is still sometimes called Persian. The Persian language belongs to the western group of the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

The Parthian monarchy was succeeded by the Persian dynasty of the Sasanians in 224 AD.

New Persian literature flourished after the Arab conquest of Iran with its earliest records from the 9th century,[111] and was developed as a court tradition in many eastern courts.

. Islamic festivals are also widely celebrated by Muslim Persians. From Persis and throughout the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of ancient Iran to the neighboring Greek city states and the kingdom of Macedon,[107][13] and later throughout the medieval Islamic world,[108][16] all the way to modern Iran and others parts of Eurasia, Persian culture has been extended, celebrated, and incorporated.

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Persian-speaking communities native to modern Arab countries are generally designated as Ajam,[71] including the Ajam of Bahrain, the Ajam of Iraq, and the Ajam of Kuwait. string(11) "Image_1.gif" }

Persians can trace their lineage back to what is today Iran, but all Persians dont necessarily live in Iran. The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group who comprise over half of the population of Iran. [59] Samples of Old Persian have been discovered in present-day Iran, Armenia, Egypt, Iraq, Romania (Gherla),[83][84] and Turkey.

string(15) "http://grc.net/" [67] The Arabic term Ajam, denoting "people unable to speak properly", was adopted as a designation for non-Arabs (or non-Arabic speakers), especially the Persians.

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A thriving contemporary Persian literature has also been formed by the works of writers such as Ahmad Shamlou, Forough Farrokhzad, Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, Parvin E'tesami, Sadegh Hedayat, and Simin Daneshvar, among others.

[19][20] Historically, however, the terms Tajik and Tat were used synonymously and interchangeably with Persian. Explore the dates the Qin dynasty ruled, the Qin dynasty ruler, legalism during the Qin dynasty, and the Great Wall of China. For a period of over 400 years, the Sasanians and the neighboring Byzantines were recognized as the two leading powers in the world.

Createyouraccount. Understand their conquests and political cunning through discussion of Hellenism, a strategy used by Alexander in persuading his adversaries to embrace Greek culture. [79] Fars, corresponding to the ancient province of Persia, with its modern capital Shiraz, became a center of interest, particularly during the annual international Shiraz Arts Festival and the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. Persians have contributed to various forms of art, including calligraphy, carpet weaving, glasswork, lacquerware, marquetry (khatam), metalwork, miniature illustration, mosaic, pottery, and textile design.[15]. Learn about the Abbasids.

[28][9], Some medieval and early modern Islamic sources also used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples and languages, including the speakers of Khwarazmian,[29] Mazanderani,[30] and Old Azeri. [77] Contemporary embracement of the legacy of Iran's ancient empires, with an emphasis on the Achaemenid Persian Empire, developed particularly under the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty, providing the motive of a modern nationalistic pride. Alexander the Great and the Birth of Hellenism.

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[49] Similarly near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in the area.

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IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (2) Documentation", "ARABIC LANGUAGE v. Arabic Elements in Persian", "ARCHITECTURE vi.

1924 1925 1926 1928 1980 1992 150 92 16 ( ) 20 % 15 ( ) " " . } Ancient Iranian goddess Anahita depicted on a Sasanian silver vessel. The Neo-Babylonian & Neo-Assyrian Empires.

[89][90][91][92][93][94][95], The Lurs, an ethnic Iranian people native to western Iran, are often associated with the Persians and the Kurds.

The artistic heritage of the Persians is eclectic and has included contributions from both the east and the west.

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The Tajiks are a people native to Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan who speak Persian in a variety of dialects. Examine the historical background of law codes, study Hammurabi Code examples, and discover why Hammurabi's Code was important. [76] During the times of the Safavids and subsequent modern Iranian dynasties such as the Qajars, architectural and iconographic elements from the time of the Sasanian Persian Empire were reincorporated, linking the modern country with its ancient past. Qin Dynasty: Overview & Legalism | Who Built China's Great Wall? Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as works written by Persians in other languagessuch as Arabic and Greekmight also be included. string(1) "3"

Carpet weaving is an essential part of the Persian culture,[119] and Persian rugs are said to be one of the most detailed hand-made works of art.

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Learn about the Punic Wars definition. [9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires[11][10] that are well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence, which covered much of the territory and population of the ancient world. info@araa.sa : , array(1) { National Museum of Iran, Tehran. ["GalleryID"]=>

[55], The Parthians and the Sasanians would also extensively interact with the Romans culturally.

[48] In Lydia (the most important Achaemenid satrapy), near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, which, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Until the Parthian era, Iranian identity had an ethnic, linguistic, and religious value.

The country of Iran was once known as Persia. () The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan", "IRAN ii.

string(11) "Image_1.gif" [71] A series of Muslim Iranian kingdoms were later established on the fringes of the declining Abbasid Caliphate, including that of the ninth-century Samanids, under the reign of whom the Persian language was used officially for the first time after two centuries of no attestation of the language,[72] now having received the Arabic script and a large Arabic vocabulary. [12][13][14] Throughout history, the Persian people have contributed greatly to art and science.

[78] Iran's modern architecture was then inspired by that of the country's classical eras, particularly with the adoption of details from the ancient monuments in the Achaemenid capitals Persepolis and Pasargadae and the Sasanian capital Ctesiphon. [9][37] The ninth-century BC Neo-Assyrian inscription of the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, found at Nimrud, gives it in the Late Assyrian forms Parsua and Parsuma as a region and a people located in the Zagros Mountains, the latter likely having migrated southward and transferred the name of the region with them to what would become Persis (Persia proper, i.e., modern-day Fars), and that is considered to be the earliest attestation to the ancient Persian people. Although Persis (Persia proper) was only one of the provinces of ancient Iran,[27] varieties of this term (e.g., Persia) were adopted through Greek sources and used as an exonym for all of the Persian Empire for many years. There are several ethnic groups and communities that are either ethnically or linguistically related to the Persian people, living predominantly in Iran, and also within Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, the Caucasus, Turkey, Iraq, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.[87].


[0]=> Abbasid Caliphate Empire & Dynasty | Who Were the Abbasids? The middle class is made up of civil servants and white-collar workers.

[122], Iranian music, as a whole, utilizes a variety of musical instruments that are unique to the region, and has remarkably evolved since the ancient and medieval times.

[51][52] At the peak of its power, under the infamous Mithridates VI the Great, the Kingdom of Pontus also controlled Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. Learn about the Fertile Crescent. Sociolinguistic Status of Lori", "TAJIK i. , : , , , , , , ,

Persians speak the same language of Persian or Farsi. Examine the history of Sparta.

Iranian languages and scripts (2) Documentation", "General Assembly Recognizes 21 March as International Day of Nowruz, Also Changes to 2324 March Dialogue on Financing for Development - Meetings Coverage and Press Releases", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Persians&oldid=1094402416, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing Old Persian (ca. It was inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in June 2011.


[60][56][59] Old Persian is one of the oldest Indo-European languages attested in original text.

The Iranian New Year's Day, Nowruz, which translates to "new day", is celebrated by Persians and other peoples of Iran to mark the beginning of spring on the vernal equinox on the first day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian calendar, which corresponds to around March 21 in the Gregorian calendar.

The next class is made up of merchants and clergy.

An ancient tradition that has been preserved in Iran and several other countries that were under the influence of the ancient empires of Iran,[124][125] Nowruz has been registered on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.

[category_id] => 4558 Who developed the golden age of Persian What scientific developments did the Persians What countries made up the Median Empire? [content_id] => 6190

[28] Thus, especially in the Western world, the names Persia and Persian came to refer to all of Iran and its subjects.

Apparently, the Persians themselves knew the story,[26] as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but ultimately failed to do so. [19] Many influential Persian figures hailed from outside of Iran's present-day bordersto the northeast in Afghanistan and Central Asia, and to a lesser extent within the Caucasus proper to the northwest. +:966126531375

The Persian language is known to have one of the world's oldest and most influential literatures.

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[97][98][61], The Hazaras, making up the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan,[99][100][101] speak a variety of Persian by the name of Hazaragi,[102] which is more precisely a part of the Dari dialect continuum.

[2] They are native speakers of the modern dialects of Persian,[81] which serves as the country's official language.[82].

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[50] According to Pausanias, as late as the second century AD, one could witness rituals which resembled the Persian fire ceremony at the towns of Hyrocaesareia and Hypaepa.

In 552 BC, the Achaemenid Persians revolted against the Median monarchy, leading to the victory of Cyrus the Great over the throne in 550 BC.

The lowest class of Persian people are unskilled workers and unemployed people. [images] => {"image_intro":"images/sager1.jpg","float_intro":"","image_intro_alt":"","image_intro_caption":"","image_fulltext":"","float_fulltext":"","image_fulltext_alt":"","image_fulltext_caption":""}

[80] The Pahlavi rulers modernized Iran, and ruled it until the 1979 Revolution.

Peloponnesian War & Thucydides | What was the Peloponnesian War? In contemporary terminology, people from Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan who natively speak the Persian language are known as Tajiks, with the former two countries having their own dialects of Persian known as Dari and Tajiki, respectively; whereas those in the Caucasus (primarily in the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan and Dagestan, Russia), albeit heavily assimilated, are known as Tats.

[120], According to the accounts reported by Xenophon, a great number of singers were present at the Achaemenid court. [35][36], Persia is first attested in Assyrian sources from the third millennium BC in the Old Assyrian form Parahe, designating a region belonging to the Sumerians.

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[31] 10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi, Dari, and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic authors have also used Persian literature in the environment of Persianate cultures.

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In modern Iran, the Persians make up the majority of the population. Xenophon, in his Oeconomicus,[115] states: "The Great King [Cyrus II]in all the districts he resides in and visits, takes care that there are pardeisos ("paradise") as they [Persians] call them, full of the good and beautiful things that the soil produce.". [urls] => {"urla":"","urlatext":"","targeta":"","urlb":"","urlbtext":"","targetb":"","urlc":"","urlctext":"","targetc":""} Charshanbe Suri and Sizdebedar) begin on the eve of the last Wednesday of the preceding year in the Iranian calendar and last on the 13th day of the new year.

After over eight centuries of foreign rule within the region, the Iranian hegemony was reestablished by the emergence of the Safavid Empire in the 16th century. The Persian Empire once stretched across portions of Eurasia and northern Africa.

The term Persian, meaning "from Persia", derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Perss (),[23] a Hellenized form of Old Persian Prsa (), which evolves into Frs () in modern Persian.

Iranian ethnic group who make up over half the population of Iran, , 10th-century Arab Muslim writer Ibn Hawqal, in his, harv error: no target: CITEREFShapur_Shahbazi2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSchmitt2000 (, harv error: no target: CITEREFSchmitt2008 (.

The Tat people, an Iranian people native to the Caucasus (primarily living in the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Russian republic of Dagestan), speak a language (Tat language) that is closely related to Persian. .

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[63][64][65] Cappadocia in Late Antiquity, now well into the Roman era, still retained a significant Iranian character; Stephen Mitchell notes in the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity: "Many inhabitants of Cappadocia were of Persian descent and Iranian fire worship is attested as late as 465".[66]. [120], The Pazyryk carpet, a Scythian pile-carpet dating back to the 4th century BC that is regarded as the world's oldest existing carpet, depicts elements of Assyrian and Achaemenid designs, including stylistic references to the stone slab designs found in Persian royal buildings. [content_title] =>

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Brill and London: Luzac, 191338. Read about its impact and influence. These holidays are a time when many people gather to enjoy local Persian foods, most commonly dishes featuring lamb, rice, vegetables, and spices.

[19] The Tajiks of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are native speakers of Tajik, which is the official language of Tajikistan, and those in Afghanistan speak Dari, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. Discover the results and the impact of the Peloponnesian War.

Discover an important part of history and see how the Romans were able to establish their dominance in the Mediterranean.

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[53] Strabo, who observed them in the Cappadocian Kingdom in the first century BC, records (XV.3.15) that these "fire kindlers" possessed many "holy places of the Persian Gods", as well as fire temples.

[24] In the Bible, particularly in the books of Daniel, Esther, Ezra, and Nehemya, it is given as Prs (). The Persians were once the archenemy of the ancient Greeks. Learn about contemporary history versus historical records, Herodotus and his account of the Persian conflict with the Greeks, as well as Darius the Great versus Athens, Xerxes and the Battle of Thermopylae, and the Battle of Salamis. copyright 2003-2022 Study.com. Learn about the beginning of ancient Rome. Discover the early civilizations of Mesopotamia.

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Learn about the efforts of Alexander the Great and his father, King Phillip II of Macedonia, to advance Greek culture and language throughout neighboring empires.

The RomanPersian wars and the ByzantineSasanian wars would shape the landscape of Western Asia, Europe, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Mediterranean Basin for centuries. [0]=> [catid] => 4558 The most notable examples of ancient Persian architecture are the works of the Achaemenids hailing from Persis.

[32] In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the Afghans of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of the Persians.

The Persian population is divided into different classes of people.

In fact, some people still Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions.

Xenophon describes the carpet production in the city of Sardis, stating that the locals take pride in their carpet production. The Persian language is an Indo-European language and is written in the Persian alphabet, a modified Arabic writing. [45], At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.

"Like most Persian dialects, Tati is not very regular in its characteristic features ()".

)-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 22 June 2022, at 11:55. 5th-century BC Achaemenid gold vessels.

However, it did not yet have a political import.

The majority practices Islam.


Following the Macedonian conquests, the Persian colonists in Cappadocia and the rest of Asia Minor were cut off from their co-religionists in Iran proper, but they continued to practice the Iranian faith of their forefathers. The architectural heritage of the Sasanian Empire includes, among others, castle fortifications such as the Fortifications of Derbent (located in North Caucasus, now part of Russia), the Rudkhan Castle and the Shapur-Khwast Castle, palaces such as the Palace of Ardashir and the Sarvestan Palace, bridges such as the Shahrestan Bridge and the Shapuri Bridge, the Archway of Ctesiphon, and the reliefs at Taq-e Bostan. Following the Arab conquest of the Sasanian Empire in the medieval times, the Arab caliphates established their rule over the region for the next several centuries, during which the long process of the Islamization of Iran took place. [asset_id] => 14571 emperors, satraps, soldiers, and warriors). string(16) "https://grc.net/"

600-400 B.C.

[88] The origin of the Tat people is traced to an Iranian-speaking population that was resettled in the Caucasus by the time of the Sasanian Empire. The Iranian dominance collapsed in 330 BC following the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after through the establishment of the Parthian Empire in 247 BC, which was founded by a group of ancient Iranian people rising from Parthia. [109][17][108][110] This is due mainly to its geopolitical conditions, and its intricate relationship with the ever-changing political arena once as dominant as the Achaemenid Empire. ["ImageName"]=>

IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic Times", "IRANIAN IDENTITY ii. The Persians spread their influence to the rest of what is considered to be the Iranian Plateau, and assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans.

Persia is the modern day country of Iran.

Achaemenid rug and carpet artistry is well recognized. According to the CIA Factbook, over 50% of the population of Iran is Persian. stdClass Object

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[alias] => 2022-06-28-11-33-27 [15][16][17] Persian literature is one of the world's most prominent literary traditions.[18].

[46] The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is essentially a reciprocal cultural exchange. A special mention of Persian carpets is also made by Athenaeus of Naucratis in his Deipnosophistae, as he describes a "delightfully embroidered" Persian carpet with "preposterous shapes of griffins". Review a map of where the Fertile Crescent is and why it is important. The name of this region was adopted by a nomadic ancient Iranian people who migrated to the region in the west and southwest of Lake Urmia, eventually becoming known as "the Persians". Today, most Persians live in Iran.

+: 966126511999 Persia was frequently known as Iran which translates to Land of the Aryans. The name was officially changed to Iran in 1935.


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. [50] In all these centuries, Lydia and Pontus were reportedly the chief centers for the worship of the Persian gods in Asia Minor. Explore the rise and fall of the Persian Empire to learn what happened to Persia.

[103][104] The Aimaqs, a semi-nomadic people native to Afghanistan,[105] speak a variety of Persian by the name of Aimaqi, which also belongs to the Dari dialect continuum.[81][106]. Learn about Ancient Persian culture, characteristics of the Persian Empire, and Persias history.

Persians celebrate many important holidays, including the Persian New Year, which is known as Noruz.

History in the Qajar and Pahlavi Periods", "Hazara community finds safe haven in Peshawar", "Iran vi. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION", "AZERBAIJAN vii.

[18] Old Persian written works are attested on several inscriptions from between the 6th and the 4th centuries BC, and Middle Persian literature is attested on inscriptions from the Parthian and Sasanian eras and in Zoroastrian and Manichaean scriptures from between the 3rd to the 10th century AD.

Explore the history of Ancient Sumer and the Sumerian civilization. [116] Gardens assumed an important place for the Achaemenid monarchs,[115] and utilized the advanced Achaemenid knowledge of water technologies,[117] including aqueducts, earliest recorded gravity-fed water rills, and basins arranged in a geometric system.

[118] The word paradise itself originates from Avestan pairidaza (Old Persian paridaida; New Persian pardis, ferdows), which literally translates to "walled-around".

[47] Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was also notably huge,[13] even for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars.[13]. The upper class is comprised of real estate investors, and entrepreneurs. Explore who the Persians were, and better understand key elements of their government (e.g. Explore ancient Rome's early history like who founded the Roman Empire, when it was established, and where it was founded. Learn how long the Persian Empire lasted and where Media and Persia are today. [126] In Iran, the Nowruz celebrations (incl. object(stdClass)#1106 (3) { Herodotus recounts this story,[25] devising a foreign son, Perses, from whom the Persians took the name. [96] They speak various dialects of the Luri language, which is considered to be a descendant of Middle Persian. Ancient Greece Geography & Landscape | Where was Ancient Greece Located?

2014 - 2022.

See the definition of "Abbasids," learn about the Abbasid caliphate, Abbasid society, Abbasid culture, and the decline of the caliphate.

[38][39][40][41][42], The ancient Persians played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ["Detail"]=> However, not all Iranians are Persian.

There are additional ethnic and tribal groups that reside in modern Iran, including the Azeri and Kurdish people.

[55] Other aspects of this national culture included the glorification of a great heroic past and an archaizing spirit. [50] Mithridates III of Cius, a Persian nobleman and part of the Persian ruling elite of the town of Cius, founded the Kingdom of Pontus in his later life, in northern Asia Minor.

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[121] Overall, Sasanian music was influential and was adopted in the subsequent eras. V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th.


Characterized by its quadripartite (rbq) design, the Persian garden was evolved and developed into various forms throughout history,[115] and was also adopted in various other cultures in Eurasia.

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